Pain in Testicles: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

08.06.2018
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pain in ballsPain in the scrotum may trouble men at any age, even in infancy. It is quite easier to define the cause of pain in adulthood than it can be made in adolescence or childhood. Let’s consider some basic anatomy in order to understand better the various causes of this symptom. The scrotum is a formation of muscles and skin where the testicles, the lower part of the testicular cord and appendages are located. Inner cavity of the scrotum is divided in two halves by special scrotal septum and each half contains a testicle with testicular cord and appendage. Large numbers of diseases that result in soreness in the scrotum (epididymitis, testicular torsion, hematocele or pinching of inguinal hernia) are highly treatable with timely medical care. It is necessary to remember that there is no home treatment for testicular pain and even if you feel pain in testicles while urination you should seek medical care in order to clarify the situation and get proper treatment if need be.

Conditions When Medical Attention Is Required

It is very difficult to define the cause of discomfort in the scrotum on one’s own. The following cases need professional help (andrologist or urologist):

  • pain in testicles while urinationone of the testicles is changed in size, shape or consistency;
  • sudden sharp pain in the scrotum;
  • nagging character of pain in the scrotum with increasing painfulness over time;
  • continuous post traumatic pain in the testicles area (which trouble you an hour or later after trauma);
  • tenderness of the testicles;
  • fever, vomiting and nausea accompany the pain;
  • painful or painless formations of the testicles area found on palpation.

Most of the diseases, characterized by the described signs, have been rather well investigated and have thoroughly exercised methods of treatment. Therefore, you can be sure in quick recovery with timely visit to andrologist or urologist.

Pain In The Scrotum: Common Causes

The most likely causes of sick feeling in the scrotum are:

  1. Mechanical impact is the most common reason for pain that appears as a result of some contusion or blow. In case of serious injury, strong shock may cause loss of consciousness. If the injury is not a serious one, pain in testicles can increase progressively and the same symptoms may be observed because of long-term traumatization. Breaching of the testicle integrity due to contusion is very rare; it could be only possible with injuries of piercing and cutting character.  In the latter case, medical intervention is obligatory as self-medication may turn into testicle loss or infertility.
  2. Inguinal hernia – in case that intestinal loop slides into the scrotum it may put strong pressure on the testicles and cause a bad headache. Peritoneum protrusion, accompanying inguinal hernia results in pinching of testicular cord. In some cases, the disease can be dormant without any pain. Surgical attention is necessary if there is some worsening of inguinal hernia or pinching.
  3. pain in testicleEpididymitis is an inflammation of epididymis accompanied by swelling of the scrotum and severe pain in balls area. Epididymitis includes such symptoms as temperature rise, involuntary and painful urination, burns of the urethra. The disease is often a complication of STD (sexually transmitted diseases) such as gonorrhea and Chlamydia;
  4. Orchitis is an inflammatory condition of the testicle, which generally occurs as complication after mumps. Symptoms of orchitis may include testicular swelling and pain in testicles, abrupt temperature rise, which may continue up to 14 days. Later the testicle is gradually diminished in size and this process may be extended over 3 months (in severe cases the testicles may be atrophied). Normally the affected testes maintain their function but quantity of sperm after that could be less than it had been before.
  5. Prostatitis is an inflammation of prostate gland tissues. The disease often shows no symptoms but in some severe cases, it may be accompanied by intense pain felt in the scrotum and perineum, temperature rise, frequent urination and fever and also pain in testicles after ejaculation.
  6. Testicular torsion is its turn about the longitudinal axis resulting in the torsion of testicular cord. Because of that, spermatic and blood vessels turned out to be clamped leading to an interruption of blood flow to the affected testicle. Without timely medical help, there could be “death” of a testicle. Torsion requires emergency surgery.
  7. Varicocele is a disease of blood vessels within the spermatic cord when varicose takes place. It is accompanied by testicular pain and neglected disease may lead to infertility.

Diseases of the genitourinary system – scrotal pain may be due to urolithiasis, the existence of neoplasms, tumor or cyst in kidney and chronic cystitis.

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